MATLAB算術運算
MATLAB允許兩種不同類型的算術運算：

矩陣算術運算

陣列算術運算
矩陣的算術運算是線性代數中的定義相同。執行數組操作，無論是在一維和多維數組元素的元素。
矩陣運算符和數組運營商是有區彆的句點（.）符號。然而，由於加法和減法運算矩陣和陣列是相同的，操作者這兩種情況下是相同的。
下表給出了運算符的簡要說明：
操作符  描述 

+  Addition or unary plus. A+B adds A and B. A and B must have the same size, unless one is a scalar. A scalar can be added to a matrix of any size. 
  Subtraction or unary minus. AB subtracts B from A. A and B must have the same size, unless one is a scalar. A scalar can be subtracted from a matrix of any size. 
* 
Matrix multiplication. C = A*B is the linear algebraic product of the matrices A and B. More precisely,
For nonscalar A and B, the number of columns of A must equal the number of rows of B. A scalar can multiply a matrix of any size. 
.*  Array multiplication. A.*B is the elementbyelement product of the arrays A and B. A and B must have the same size, unless one of them is a scalar. 
/  Slash or matrix right division. B/A is roughly the same as B*inv(A). More precisely, B/A = (A'B')'. 
./  Array right division. A./B is the matrix with elements A(i,j)/B(i,j). A and B must have the same size, unless one of them is a scalar. 
Backslash or matrix left division. If A is a square matrix, AB is roughly the same as inv(A)*B, except it is computed in a different way. If A is an nbyn matrix and B is a column vector with n components, or a matrix with several such columns, then X = AB is the solution to the equation AX = B. A warning message is displayed if A is badly scaled or nearly singular.  
.  Array left division. A.B is the matrix with elements B(i,j)/A(i,j). A and B must have the same size, unless one of them is a scalar. 
^  Matrix power. X^p is X to the power p, if p is a scalar. If p is an integer, the power is computed by repeated squaring. If the integer is negative, X is inverted first. For other values of p, the calculation involves eigenvalues and eigenvectors, such that if [V,D] = eig(X), then X^p = V*D.^p/V. 
.^  Array power. A.^B is the matrix with elements A(i,j) to the B(i,j) power. A and B must have the same size, unless one of them is a scalar. 
'  Matrix transpose. A' is the linear algebraic transpose of A. For complex matrices, this is the complex conjugate transpose. 
.'  Array transpose. A.' is the array transpose of A. For complex matrices, this does not involve conjugation. 
例子
下麵的例子顯示使用標量數據的算術運算符。創建一個腳本文件，用下麵的代碼：
a = 10; b = 20; c = a + b d = a  b e = a * b f = a / b g = a b x = 7; y = 3; z = x ^ y
當運行該文件，它會產生以下結果：
c = 30 d = 10 e = 200 f = 0.5000 g = 2 z = 343
算術運算功能
除了在上述的算術運算符，MATLAB 用於類似的目的提供了以下的命令/功能：
函數  描述 

uplus(a)  Unary plus; increments by the amount a 
plus (a,b)  Plus; returns a + b 
uminus(a)  Unary minus; decrements by the amount a 
minus(a, b)  Minus; returns a  b 
times(a, b)  Array multiply; returns a.*b 
mtimes(a, b)  Matrix multiplication; returns a* b 
rdivide(a, b)  Right array division; returns a ./ b 
ldivide(a, b)  Left array division; returns a. b 
mrdivide(A, B)  Solve systems of linear equations xA = B for x 
mldivide(A, B)  Solve systems of linear equations Ax = B for x 
power(a, b)  Array power; returns a.^b 
mpower(a, b)  Matrix power; returns a ^ b 
cumprod(A) 
Cumulative product; returns an array the same size as the array A containing the cumulative product.

cumprod(A, dim)  Returns the cumulative product along dimension dim. 
cumsum(A) 
Cumulative sum; returns an array A containing the cumulative sum.

cumsum(A, dim)  returns the cumulative sum of the elements along dimension dim. 
diff(X) 
Differences and approximate derivatives; calculates differences between adjacent elements of X.

diff(X,n)  Applies diff recursively n times, resulting in the nth difference. 
diff(X,n,dim)  It is the nth difference function calculated along the dimension specified by scalar dim. If order n equals or exceeds the length of dimension dim, diff returns an empty array. 
prod(A) 
Product of array elements; returns the product of the array elements of A.

prod(A,dim)  Returns the products along dimension dim. For example, if A is a matrix, prod(A,2) is a column vector containing the products of each row. 
prod(___,datatype)  multiplies in and returns an array in the class specified by datatype. 
sum(A) 

sum(A,dim)  Sums along the dimension of A specified by scalar dim. 
sum(..., 'double')
sum(..., dim,'double') 
Perform additions in doubleprecision and return an answer of type double, even if A has data type single or an integer data type. This is the default for integer data types. 
sum(..., 'native')
sum(..., dim,'native') 
Perform additions in the native data type of A and return an answer of the same data type. This is the default for single and double. 
ceil(A)  Round toward positive infinity; rounds the elements of A to the nearest integers greater than or equal to A. 
fix(A)  Round toward zero 
floor(A)  Round toward negative infinity; rounds the elements of A to the nearest integers less than or equal to A. 
idivide(a, b)
idivide(a, b,'fix') 
Integer division with rounding option; is the same as a./b except that fractional quotients are rounded toward zero to the nearest integers. 
idivide(a, b, 'round')  Fractional quotients are rounded to the nearest integers. 
idivide(A, B, 'floor')  Fractional quotients are rounded toward negative infinity to the nearest integers. 
idivide(A, B, 'ceil')  Fractional quotients are rounded toward infinity to the nearest integers. 
mod (X,Y) 
Modulus after division; returns X  n.*Y where n = floor(X./Y). If Y is not an integer and the quotient X./Y is within roundoff error of an integer, then n is that integer. The inputs X and Y must be real arrays of the same size, or real scalars (provided Y ~=0).
Please note:

rem (X,Y) 
Remainder after division; returns X  n.*Y where n = fix(X./Y). If Y is not an integer and the quotient X./Y is within roundoff error of an integer, then n is that integer. The inputs X and Y must be real arrays of the same size, or real scalars(provided Y ~=0).
Please note that:

round(X)  Round to nearest integer; rounds the elements of X to the nearest integers. Positive elements with a fractional part of 0.5 round up to the nearest positive integer. Negative elements with a fractional part of 0.5 round down to the nearest negative integer. 